|Part of a series on|
|Social and cultural anthropology|
|Part of a series on|
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a style of life which often includes an occupation, ritual status in a hierarchy, and customary social interaction and exclusion based on cultural notions of purity and pollution. Its paradigmatic ethnographic example is the division of India's Hindu society into rigid social groups, with roots in India's ancient history and persisting to the present time. However, the economic significance of the caste system in India has been declining as a result of urbanization and affirmative action programs. A subject of much scholarship by sociologists and anthropologists, the Hindu caste system is sometimes used as an analogical basis for the study of caste-like social divisions existing outside Hinduism and India. The term "caste" is also applied to morphological groupings in female populations of ants and bees.
The English word "caste" derives from the Spanish and Portuguese casta, which, according to the John Minsheu's Spanish dictionary (1569), means "race, lineage, tribe or breed". When the Spanish colonized the New World, they used the word to mean a "clan or lineage". It was, however, the Portuguese who first employed casta in the primary modern sense of the English word 'caste' when they applied it to the thousands of endogamous, hereditary Indian social groups they encountered upon their arrival in India in 1498. The use of the spelling "caste", with this latter meaning, is first attested in English in 1613.
Caste system in India
Modern India's caste system is based on the artificial superimposition of a four-fold theoretical classification called the Varna on the natural social groupings called the Jāti. From 1901 onwards, for the purposes of the Decennial Census, the British classified all Jātis into one or the other of the Varna categories as described in ancient texts. Herbert Hope Risley, the Census Commissioner, noted that "The principle suggested as a basis was that of classification by social precedence as recognized by native public opinion at the present day, and manifesting itself in the facts that particular castes are supposed to be the modern representatives of one or other of the castes of the theoretical Indian system." The system of Varnas propounded in ancient Hindu texts envisages the society divided into four classes: Brahmins (scholars and yajna priests), Kshatriyas (rulers and warriors), Vaishyas (farmers, merchants and artisans) and Shudras (workmen/service providers). The texts do not mention any separate, untouchable category in Varna classification. Scholars believe that the Varnas system was never truly operational in society and there is no evidence of it ever being a reality in Indian history. The practical division of the society had always been in terms of Jātis (birth groups), which are not based on any specific principle, but could vary from ethnic origins to occupations to geographic areas. The Jātis have been endogamous groups without any fixed hierarchy but subject to vague notions of rank articulated over time based on lifestyle and social, political or economic status. Many of India's major empires and dynasties like the Mauryas, Shalivahanas, Chalukyas, Kakatiyas among many others, were founded by people who would have been classified as Shudras, under the Varnas system. It is well established that by the 9th century, kings from all the four castes, including Brahmins and Vaishyas, had occupied the highest seat in the monarchical system in Hindu India, contrary to the Varna theory. In many instances, as in Bengal, historically the kings and rulers had been called upon, when required, to mediate on the ranks of Jātis, which might number in thousands all over the subcontinent and vary by region. In practice, the jātis may or may not fit into the Varna classes and many prominent Jatis, for example the Jats and Yadavs, straddled two Varnas i.e. Kshatriyas and Vaishyas, and the Varna status of Jātis itself was subject to articulation over time.
Starting with the British colonial Census of 1901 led by Herbert Hope Risley, all the jātis were grouped under the theoretical varnas categories. According to political scientist Lloyd Rudolph, Risley believed that varna, however ancient, could be applied to all the modern castes found in India, and "[he] meant to identify and place several hundred million Indians within it." In an effort to arrange various castes in order of precedence functional grouping was based less on the occupation that prevailed in each case in the present day than on that which was traditional with it, or which gave rise to its differentiation from the rest of the community. "This action virtually removed Indians from the progress of history and condemned them to an unchanging position and place in time. In one sense, it is rather ironic that the British, who continually accused the Indian people of having a static society, should then impose a construct that denied progress" The terms varna (conceptual classification based on occupation) and jāti (groups) are two distinct concepts: while varna is the idealised four-part division envisaged by the Twice-Born, jāti (community) refers to the thousands of actual endogamous groups prevalent across the subcontinent. The classical authors scarcely speak of anything other than the varnas, as it provided a convenient shorthand; but a problem arises when even Indologists sometimes confuse the two. Thus, starting with the 1901 Census, Caste officially became India's essential institution, with an imprimatur from the British administrators, augmenting a discourse that had already dominated Indology. “Despite India's acquisition of formal political independence, it has still not regained the power to know its own past and present apart from that discourse”.
Upon independence from Britain, the Indian Constitution listed 1,108 castes across the country as Scheduled Castes in 1950, for positive discrimination. The Untouchable communities are sometimes called Scheduled Castes, Dalit or Harijan in contemporary literature. In 2001, Dalits were 16.2% of India's population. Most of the 15 million bonded child workers are from the lowest castes.
Independent India has witnessed caste-related violence. In 2005, government recorded approximately 110,000 cases of reported violent acts, including rape and murder, against Dalits. For 2012, the government recorded 651 murders, 3,855 injuries, 1,576 rapes, 490 kidnappings, and 214 cases of arson.
The socio-economic limitations of the caste system are reduced due to urbanization and affirmative action. Nevertheless, the caste system still exists in endogamy and patrimony, and thrives in the politics of democracy, where caste provides ready made constituencies to politicians. The globalization and economic opportunities from foreign businesses has influenced the growth of India's middle-class population. Some members of the Chhattisgarh Potter Caste Community (CPCC) are middle-class urban professionals and no longer potters unlike the remaining majority of traditional rural potter members. There is persistence of caste in Indian politics. Caste associations have evolved into caste-based political parties. Political parties and the state perceive caste as an important factor for mobilization of people and policy development.
Studies by Bhatt and Beteille have shown changes in status, openness, mobility in the social aspects of Indian society. As a result of the modern social pressures on the country, India is experiencing a change in their social sphere dynamic as well as economically in the caste system. While arranged marriages are still the most common practice in India, the internet has provided a network for younger Indians to take control of their relationships through the use of dating apps. This remains isolated to informal terms, as marriage is not often achieved through the use of these apps. Hypergamy is still a common practice in India and Hindu culture. Men are expected to marry within their caste, or one below, with no social repercussions. If a woman marries into a higher caste, then her children will take the status of their father. If she marries down, her family is reduced to the social status of their son in law. In this case, the women are bearers of the egalitarian principle of the marriage. There would be no benefit in marrying a higher caste if the terms of the marriage did not imply equality. However, men are systematically shielded from the negative implications of the agreement.
Geographical factors also determine adherence to the caste system. Many Northern villages are more likely to participate in exogamous marriage, due to a lack of eligible suitors within the same caste. Women in North India have been found to be less likely to leave or divorce their husbands since they are of a relatively lower caste system, and have higher restrictions on their freedoms. On the other hand, Pahari women, of the northern mountains, have much more freedom to leave their husbands without stigma. This often leads to better husbandry as his actions are not protected by social expectations.
Chiefly among the factors influencing the rise of exogamy is the rapid urbanisation in India experienced over the last century. It is well known that urban centers tend to be less reliant on tradition and are more progressive as a whole. As India’s cities boomed in population, the job market grew to keep pace. Prosperity and stability were now more easily attained by an individual, and the anxiety to marry quickly and effectively was reduced as traditional marriage was viewed as a means to attain these principles. Thus, younger, more progressive generations of urban Indians are less likely than ever to participate in the antiquated system of arranged endogamy.
India has also experimented with Affirmative Action, locally known as “reservation groups”. Quota system jobs, as well as placements in publicly funded colleges, hold spots for the 8% of India’s minority, and underprivileged groups. As a result, in states such as Tamil Nadu or those in the north-east, where underprivileged populations predominate, over 80% of government jobs are set aside in quotas. In education, colleges lower the marks necessary for the Dalits to enter.
Caste systems in the rest of South Asia
The Nepalese caste system resembles in some respects the Indian jāti system, with numerous jāti divisions with a varna system superimposed. Inscriptions attest the beginnings of a caste system during the Licchavi period. Jayasthiti Malla (1382–1395) categorized Newars into 64 castes (Gellner 2001). A similar exercise was made during the reign of Mahindra Malla (1506–1575). The Hindu social code was later set up in Gorkha by Ram Shah (1603–1636).
McKim Marriott claims a social stratification that is hierarchical, closed, endogamous and hereditary is widely prevalent, particularly in western parts of Pakistan. Frederik Barth in his review of this system of social stratification in Pakistan suggested that these are castes.
The caste system in Sri Lanka is a division of society into strata, influenced by the textbook varnas and jāti system found in India. Ancient Sri Lankan texts such as the Pujavaliya, Sadharmaratnavaliya and Yogaratnakaraya and inscriptional evidence show that the above hierarchy prevailed throughout the feudal period. The repetition of the same caste hierarchy even as recently as the 18th century, in the British/Kandyan period Kadayimpoth – Boundary books as well, indicates the continuation of the tradition right up to the end of Sri Lanka's monarchy.
Caste-like stratification outside South Asia
Balinese caste structure has been described as being based either on three categories--the noble triwangsa (thrice born), the middle class of dwijāti (twice born), and the lower class of ekajāti (once born)--or on four castes
The Brahmana caste was further subdivided by these Dutch ethnographers into two: Siwa and Buda. The Siwa caste was subdivided into five: Kemenuh, Keniten, Mas, Manuba and Petapan. This classification was to accommodate the observed marriage between higher-caste Brahmana men with lower-caste women. The other castes were similarly further sub-classified by these 19th-century and early-20th-century ethnographers based on numerous criteria ranging from profession, endogamy or exogamy or polygamy, and a host of other factors in a manner similar to castas in Spanish colonies such as Mexico, and caste system studies in British colonies such as India.
In the Philippines, pre-colonial societies do not have a single social structure. The class structures can be roughly categorized into four types:
- Classless societies - egalitarian societies with no class structure. Examples include the Mangyan and the Kalanguya peoples.
- Warrior societies - societies where a distinct warrior class exists, and whose membership depends on martial prowess. Examples include the Mandaya, Bagobo, Tagakaulo, and B'laan peoples who had warriors called the bagani or magani. Similarly, in the Cordillera highlands of Luzon, the Isneg and Kalinga peoples refer to their warriors as mengal or maingal. This society is typical for head-hunting ethnic groups or ethnic groups which had seasonal raids (mangayaw) into enemy territory.
- Petty plutocracies - societies which have a wealthy class based on property and the hosting of periodic prestige feasts. In some groups, it was an actual caste whose members had specialized leadership roles, married only within the same caste, and wore specialized clothing. These include the kadangyan of the Ifugao, Bontoc, and Kankanaey peoples, as well as the baknang of the Ibaloi people. In others, though wealth may give one prestige and leadership qualifications, it was not a caste per se.
- Principalities - societies with an actual ruling class and caste systems determined by birthright. Most of these societies are either Indianized or Islamized to a degree. They include the larger coastal ethnic groups like the Tagalog, Kapampangan, Visayan, and Moro societies. Most of them were usually divided into four to five caste systems with different names under different ethnic groups that roughly correspond to each other. The system was more or less feudalistic, with the datu ultimately having control of all the lands of the community. The land is subdivided among the enfranchised classes, the sakop or sa-op (vassals, lit. "those under the power of another"). The castes were hereditary, though they were not rigid. They were more accurately a reflection of the interpersonal political relationships, a person is always the follower of another. People can move up the caste system by marriage, by wealth, or by doing something extraordinary; and conversely they can be demoted, usually as criminal punishment or as a result of debt. Shamans are the exception, as they are either volunteers, chosen by the ranking shamans, or born into the role by innate propensity for it. They are enumerated below from the highest rank to the lowest:
- Royalty - (Visayan: kadatoan) the datu and immediate descendants. They are often further categorized according to purity of lineage. The power of the datu is dependent on the willingness of their followers to render him respect and obedience. Most roles of the datu were judicial and military. In case of an unfit datu, support may be withdrawn by his followers. Datu were almost always male, though in some ethnic groups like the Banwaon people, the female shaman (babaiyon) co-rules as the female counterpart of the datu.
- Nobility - (Visayan: tumao; Tagalog: maginoo; Kapampangan ginu; Tausug: bangsa mataas) the ruling class, either inclusive of or exclusive of the royal family. Most are descendants of the royal line or gained their status through wealth or bravery in battle. They owned lands and subjects, from whom they collected taxes.
- Shamans - (Visayan: babaylan; Tagalog: katalonan) the spirit mediums, usually female or feminized men. While they weren't technically a caste, they commanded the same respect and status as nobility.
- Warriors - (Visayan: timawa; Tagalog: maharlika) the martial class. They could own land and subjects like the higher ranks, but were required to fight for the datu in times of war. In some Filipino ethnic groups, they were often tattooed extensively to record feats in battle and as protection against harm. They were sometimes further subdivided into different classes, depending on their relationship with the datu. They traditionally went on seasonal raids on enemy settlements.
- Commoners and slaves - (Visayan, Maguindanao: ulipon; Tagalog: alipin; Tausug: kiapangdilihan; Maranao: kakatamokan) - the lowest class composed of the rest of the community who were not part of the enfranchised classes. They were further subdivided into the commoner class who had their own houses, the servants who lived in the houses of others, and the slaves who were usually captives from raids, criminals, or debtors. Most members of this class were equivalent to the European serf class, who paid taxes and can be conscripted to communal tasks, but were more or less free to do as they please.
China and Mongolia
During the period of Yuan Dynasty, ruler Kublai Khan enforced a Four Class System, which was a legal caste system. The order of four classes of people was maintained by the information of the descending order were:
- Semu people
- Han people (in the northern areas of China)
- Southerners (people of the former Southern Song dynasty)
Heidi Fjeld [no] has put forth the argument that pre-1950s Tibetan society was functionally a caste system, in contrast to previous scholars who defined the Tibetan social class system as similar to European feudal serfdom, as well as non-scholarly western accounts which seek to romanticize a supposedly 'egalitarian' ancient Tibetan society.
In Japan's history, social strata based on inherited position rather than personal merit, were rigid and highly formalized in a system called mibunsei (身分制). At the top were the Emperor and Court nobles (kuge), together with the Shōgun and daimyō. Below them, the population was divided into four classes: samurai, peasants, craftsmen and merchants. Only samurai were allowed to bear arms. A samurai had a right to kill any peasants, craftsman or merchant who he felt were disrespectful. Merchants were the lowest caste because they did not produce any products. The castes were further sub-divided; for example, peasants were labelled as furiuri, tanagari, mizunomi-byakusho among others. As in Europe, the castes and sub-classes were of the same race, religion and culture.
De Vos and Wagatsuma observe that Japanese society had a systematic and extensive caste system. They discuss how alleged caste impurity and alleged racial inferiority, concepts often assumed to be different, are superficial terms, and are due to identical inner psychological processes, which expressed themselves in Japan and elsewhere.
Japan had its own untouchable caste, shunned and ostracized, historically referred to by the insulting term Eta, now called Burakumin. While modern law has officially abolished the class hierarchy, there are reports of discrimination against the Buraku or Burakumin underclasses. The Burakumin are regarded as "ostracised". The burakumin are one of the main minority groups in Japan, along with the Ainu of Hokkaidō and those of residents of Korean and Chinese descent.
|• Nobi||노비||奴婢||slaves or serfs|
The baekjeong (백정) were an "untouchable" outcaste of Korea. The meaning today is that of butcher. It originates in the Khitan invasion of Korea in the 11th century. The defeated Khitans who surrendered were settled in isolated communities throughout Goryeo to forestall rebellion. They were valued for their skills in hunting, herding, butchering, and making of leather, common skill sets among nomads. Over time, their ethnic origin was forgotten, and they formed the bottom layer of Korean society.
In 1392, with the foundation of the Confucian Joseon dynasty, Korea systemised its own native class system. At the top were the two official classes, the Yangban, which literally means "two classes". It was composed of scholars (munban) and warriors (muban). Scholars had a significant social advantage over the warriors. Below were the jung-in (중인-中人: literally "middle people". This was a small class of specialized professions such as medicine, accounting, translators, regional bureaucrats, etc. Below that were the sangmin (상민-常民: literally 'commoner'), farmers working their own fields. Korea also had a serf population known as the nobi. The nobi population could fluctuate up to about one third of the population, but on average the nobi made up about 10% of the total population. In 1801, the vast majority of government nobi were emancipated, and by 1858 the nobi population stood at about 1.5% of the total population of Korea. The hereditary nobi system was officially abolished around 1886–87 and the rest of the nobi system was abolished with the Gabo Reform of 1894, but traces remained until 1930.
The opening of Korea to foreign Christian missionary activity in the late 19th century saw some improvement in the status of the baekjeong. However, everyone was not equal under the Christian congregation, and even so protests erupted when missionaries tried to integrate baekjeong into worship, with non-baekjeong finding this attempt insensitive to traditional notions of hierarchical advantage. Around the same time, the baekjeong began to resist open social discrimination. They focused on social and economic injustices affecting them, hoping to create an egalitarian Korean society. Their efforts included attacking social discrimination by upper class, authorities, and "commoners", and the use of degrading language against children in public schools.
With the Gabo reform of 1896, the class system of Korea was officially abolished. Following the collapse of the Gabo government, the new cabinet, which became the Gwangmu government after the establishment of the Korean Empire, introduced systematic measures for abolishing the traditional class system. One measure was the new household registration system, reflecting the goals of formal social equality, which was implemented by the loyalists' cabinet. Whereas the old registration system signified household members according to their hierarchical social status, the new system called for an occupation.
While most Koreans by then had surnames and even bongwan, although still substantial number of cheonmin, mostly consisted of serfs and slaves, and untouchables did not. According to the new system, they were then required to fill in the blanks for surname in order to be registered as constituting separate households. Instead of creating their own family name, some cheonmins appropriated their masters' surname, while others simply took the most common surname and its bongwan in the local area. Along with this example, activists within and outside the Korean government had based their visions of a new relationship between the government and people through the concept of citizenship, employing the term inmin ("people") and later, kungmin ("citizen").
The Committee for Human Rights in North Korea reported that "Every North Korean citizen is assigned a heredity-based class and socio-political rank over which the individual exercises no control but which determines all aspects of his or her life." Called Songbun, Barbara Demick describes this "class structure" as an updating of the hereditary "caste system", a combination of Confucianism and Stalinism. She claims that a bad family background is called "tainted blood", and that by law this "tainted blood" lasts three generations.
Yezidi society is hierarchical. The secular leader is a hereditary emir or prince, whereas a chief sheikh heads the religious hierarchy. The Yazidi are strictly endogamous; members of the three Yazidi castes, the murids, sheikhs and pirs, marry only within their group.
Pre-Islamic Sassanid society was immensely complex, with separate systems of social organization governing numerous different groups within the empire. Historians believe society comprised four social classes:
- priests (Persian: Asravan)
- warriors (Persian: Arteshtaran)
- secretaries (Persian: Dabiran)
- commoners (Persian: Vastryoshan)
In Yemen there exists a hereditary caste, the African-descended Al-Akhdam who are kept as perennial manual workers. Estimates put their number at over 3.5 million residents who are discriminated, out of a total Yemeni population of around 22 million.
Various sociologists have reported caste systems in Africa. The specifics of the caste systems have varied in ethnically and culturally diverse Africa, however the following features are common – it has been a closed system of social stratification, the social status is inherited, the castes are hierarchical, certain castes are shunned while others are merely endogamous and exclusionary. In some cases, concepts of purity and impurity by birth have been prevalent in Africa. In other cases, such as the Nupe of Nigeria, the Beni Amer of East Africa, and the Tira of Sudan, the exclusionary principle has been driven by evolving social factors.
Among the Igbo of Nigeria – especially Enugu, Anambra, Imo, Abia, Ebonyi, Edo and Delta states of the country – Obinna finds Osu caste system has been and continues to be a major social issue. The Osu caste is determined by one's birth into a particular family irrespective of the religion practised by the individual. Once born into Osu caste, this Nigerian person is an outcast, shunned and ostracized, with limited opportunities or acceptance, regardless of his or her ability or merit. Obinna discusses how this caste system-related identity and power is deployed within government, Church and indigenous communities.
The Songhai economy was based on a caste system. The most common were metalworkers, fishermen, and carpenters. Lower caste participants consisted of mostly non-farm working immigrants, who at times were provided special privileges and held high positions in society. At the top were noblemen and direct descendants of the original Songhai people, followed by freemen and traders.
In a review of social stratification systems in Africa, Richter reports that the term caste has been used by French and American scholars to many groups of West African artisans. These groups have been described as inferior, deprived of all political power, have a specific occupation, are hereditary and sometimes despised by others. Richter illustrates caste system in Ivory Coast, with six sub-caste categories. Unlike other parts of the world, mobility is sometimes possible within sub-castes, but not across caste lines. Farmers and artisans have been, claims Richter, distinct castes. Certain sub-castes are shunned more than others. For example, exogamy is rare for women born into families of woodcarvers.
Similarly, the Mandé societies in Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Senegal and Sierra Leone have social stratification systems that divide society by ethnic ties. The Mande class system regards the jonow slaves as inferior. Similarly, the Wolof in Senegal is divided into three main groups, the geer (freeborn/nobles), jaam (slaves and slave descendants) and the underclass neeno. In various parts of West Africa, Fulani societies also have class divisions. Other castes include Griots, Forgerons, and Cordonniers.
Tamari has described endogamous castes of over fifteen West African peoples, including the Tukulor, Songhay, Dogon, Senufo, Minianka, Moors, Manding, Soninke, Wolof, Serer, Fulani, and Tuareg. Castes appeared among the Malinke people no later than 14th century, and was present among the Wolof and Soninke, as well as some Songhay and Fulani populations, no later than 16th century. Tamari claims that wars, such as the Sosso-Malinke war described in the Sunjata epic, led to the formation of blacksmith and bard castes among the people that ultimately became the Mali empire.
As West Africa evolved over time, sub-castes emerged that acquired secondary specializations or changed occupations. Endogamy was prevalent within a caste or among a limited number of castes, yet castes did not form demographic isolates according to Tamari. Social status according to caste was inherited by off-springs automatically; but this inheritance was paternal. That is, children of higher caste men and lower caste or slave concubines would have the caste status of the father.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (February 2019)
Ethel M. Albert in 1960 claimed that the societies in Central Africa were caste-like social stratification systems. Similarly, in 1961, Maquet notes that the society in Rwanda and Burundi can be best described as castes. The Tutsi, noted Maquet, considered themselves as superior, with the more numerous Hutu and the least numerous Twa regarded, by birth, as respectively, second and third in the hierarchy of Rwandese society. These groups were largely endogamous, exclusionary and with limited mobility.
Horn of Africa
In a review published in 1977, Todd reports that numerous scholars report a system of social stratification in different parts of Africa that resembles some or all aspects of caste system. Examples of such caste systems, he claims, are to be found in Ethiopia in communities such as the Gurage and Konso. He then presents the Dime of Southwestern Ethiopia, amongst whom there operates a system which Todd claims can be unequivocally labelled as caste system. The Dime have seven castes whose size varies considerably. Each broad caste level is a hierarchical order that is based on notions of purity, non-purity and impurity. It uses the concepts of defilement to limit contacts between caste categories and to preserve the purity of the upper castes. These caste categories have been exclusionary, endogamous and the social identity inherited. Alula Pankhurst has published a study of caste groups in SW Ethiopia.
Among the Kafa, there were also traditionally groups labeled as castes. "Based on research done before the Derg regime, these studies generally presume the existence of a social hierarchy similar to the caste system. At the top of this hierarchy were the Kafa, followed by occupational groups including blacksmiths (Qemmo), weavers (Shammano), bards (Shatto), potters, and tanners (Manno). In this hierarchy, the Manjo were commonly referred to as hunters, given the lowest status equal only to slaves."
The Borana Oromo of southern Ethiopia in the Horn of Africa also have a class system, wherein the Wata, an acculturated hunter-gatherer group, represent the lowest class. Though the Wata today speak the Oromo language, they have traditions of having previously spoken another language before adopting Oromo.
The traditionally nomadic Somali people are divided into clans, wherein the Rahanweyn agro-pastoral clans and the occupational clans such as the Madhiban were traditionally sometimes treated as outcasts. As Gabboye, the Madhiban along with the Yibir and Tumaal (collectively referred to as sab) have since obtained political representation within Somalia, and their general social status has improved with the expansion of urban centers.
France and Spain
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (February 2019)
For centuries, through the modern times, the majority regarded Cagots who lived primarily in the Basque region of France and Spain as an inferior caste, the untouchables. While they had the same skin color and religion as the majority, in the churches they had to use segregated doors, drink from segregated fonts, and receive communion on the end of long wooden spoons. It was a closed social system. The socially isolated Cagots were endogamous, and chances of social mobility non-existent.
In July 2013, the UK government announced its intention to amend the Equality Act 2010, to "introduce legislation on caste, including any necessary exceptions to the caste provisions, within the framework of domestic discrimination law". Section 9(5) of the Equality Act 2010 provides that "a Minister may by order amend the statutory definition of race to include caste and may provide for exceptions in the Act to apply or not to apply to caste".
In W. Lloyd Warner's view, the historic relationship between Blacks and Whites in the US showed many caste-like features such as residential segregation and marriage restrictions. Discrimination based upon socio-economic factors are historically prevalent within the country.
According to Gerald D. Berreman, in the two systems, there are rigid rules of avoidance and certain types of contacts are defined as contaminating. In India, there are complex religious features which make up the system, whereas in the United States race and color are the basis for differentiation. The caste systems in India and the United States have higher groups which desire to retain their positions for themselves and thus perpetuate the two systems.
The process of creating a homogenized society by social engineering in both India and the US has created other institutions that have made class distinctions among different groups evident. Anthropologist James C. Scott elaborates on how “global capitalism is perhaps the most powerful force for homogenization, whereas the state may be the defender of local difference and variety in some instances.” The caste system further emphasizes differences between the socio-economic classes that arise as a product of capitalism, which makes social mobility more difficult. Parts of the United States are sometimes divided by race and class status despite the national narrative of integration.
As a result of increased immigration, many Indian Americans have brought their traditional caste values to the United States. A survey commissioned by Equality Labs finds that caste discrimination is also playing out in the United States. 2/3 of the members of the lowest caste, called Dalits, said that they have faced workplace discrimination due to their caste. 41% of the Dalits who were surveyed said that they have experienced discrimination in education because the caste system is now being practiced in the United States.
- Lagasse, Paul, ed. (2007), "Caste", The Columbia Encyclopedia, New York, NY: Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-14446-9, retrieved 24 September 2012 Quote: "caste [Port., casta=basket], ranked groups based on heredity within rigid systems of social stratification, especially those that constitute Hindu India. Some scholars, in fact, deny that true caste systems are found outside India. The caste is a closed group whose members are severely restricted in their choice of occupation and degree of social participation. Marriage outside the caste is prohibited. Social status is determined by the caste of one's birth and may only rarely be transcended."
- Madan, T. N.; Editors (2012), caste, Encyclopæida Britannica OnlineCS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Quote: "caste, any of the ranked, hereditary, endogamous social groups, often linked with occupation, that together constitute traditional societies in South Asia, particularly among Hindus in India. Although sometimes used to designate similar groups in other societies, the “caste system” is uniquely developed in Hindu societies."
- Gupta, Dipankar (2008), "Caste", in Schaefer, Richard T. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society, Thousand Oaks: SAGE, pp. 246–250, ISBN 978-1-4129-2694-2, retrieved 5 August 2012 Quote: "Caste: What makes Indian society unique is the phenomenon of caste. Economic, religious, and linguistic differentiations, even race-based discrimination, are known elsewhere, but nowhere else does one see caste but in India."
- Béteille, André (2002), "Caste", in Barnard, Alan; Spencer, Jonathan (eds.), Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology, New York, NY; London, UK: Routledge, pp. 136–137, ISBN 978-0-415-28558-2 Quote: "Caste: Caste has been described as the fundamental social institution of India. Sometimes the term is used metaphorically to refer to rigid social distinctions or extreme social exclusiveness wherever found, and some authorities have used the term 'colour-caste system' to describe the stratification based on race in the United States and elsewhere. But it is among the Hindus in India that we find the system in its most fully developed form although analogous forms exist among Muslims, Christians. Sikhs and other religious groups in South Asia. It is an ancient institution, having existed for at least 2,000 years among the Hindus who developed not only elaborate caste practices hut also a complex theory to explain and justify those practices (Dumont 1970). The theory has now lost much of its force although many of the practices continue."
- Mitchell, Geoffrey Duncan (2006), "Castes (part of SOCIAL STRATIFICATION)", A New Dictionary of the Social Sciences, New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction Publishers, pp. 194–195, ISBN 978-0-202-30878-4, retrieved 10 August 2012 Quote:"Castes A pure caste system is rooted in the religious order and may be thought of as a hierarchy of hereditary, endogamous, occupational groups with positions fixed and mobility barred by ritual distances between each caste. Empirically, the classical Hindu system of India approximated most closely to pure caste. The system existed for some 3,000 years and continues today despite many attempts to get rid of some of its restrictions. It is essentially connected with Hinduism."
- "caste, n.", Oxford English Dictionary, Second edition; online version June 2012, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1989, retrieved 5 August 2019) Quote: "caste, n. 2a. spec. One of the several hereditary classes into which society in India has from time immemorial been divided; ... This is now the leading sense, which influences all others."
- Scott & Marshall 2005, p. 66.
- Winthrop 1991, pp. 27–30.
- Béteille 2002, p. 66. Harv error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBéteille2002 (help)
- Wilson, E. O. (1979). "The Evolution of Caste Systems in Social Insects". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 123 (4): 204–210. JSTOR 986579.
- "caste". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Pitt-Rivers, Julian (1971), "On the word 'caste'", in T O Beidelman (ed.), The translation of culture essays to E.E. Evans-Pritchard, London, UK: Tavistock, pp. 231–256, GGKEY:EC3ZBGF5QC9
- Crooke, William. "Social Types". Chapter II in Risley, Sir Herbert Hope. The People of India
- Roy, Kaushik (2012), Hinduism and the Ethics of Warfare in South Asia: From Antiquity to the Present, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-107-01736-8
- Shalivahana was born in a potter's house, by grace of Adi-Sheshan. William Cooke Taylor (1838). Examination and Analysis of the Mackenzie Manuscripts Deposited in the Madras College Library. Asiatic Society. pp. 49–55
- Bilhana, in his Sanskrit work Vikramanakadevacharitam claims the Chalukyas were born from the feet of Brahma, implying they were Shudras, while some sources claim they were born in the arms of Brahma, and hence were Kshatriyas (Ramesh 1984, p. 15)
- Most of the Kakatiya records proudly describe them as Shudra.[Talbot, Austin Cynthia (2001), Pre-colonial India in Practice: Society, Region, and Identity in Medieval Andhra, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19803-123-9] Examples include the Bothpur and Vaddamanu inscriptions of Ganapati's general Malyala Gunda senani. The Kakatiyas also maintained marital relations with other Shudra families, such as the Kotas and the Natavadi chiefs. All these evidences indicate that the Kakatiyas were of Shudra origin.[Sastry, P. V. Parabhrama (1978). N. Ramesan, ed. The Kākatiyas of Warangal. Hyderabad: Government of Andhra Pradesh. OCLC 252341228 page 29]
- Notes of Yuan Chwang, Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1934). The Rashtrakutas And Their Times; being a political, administrative, religious, social, economic and literary history of the Deccan during C. 750 A.D. to C. 1000 A.D. Poona: Oriental Book Agency. OCLC 3793499, p 331
- Nicholas B. Dirks (2001). Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of New India. ISBN 978-0-691-08895-2.
- Rudolph, Lloyd I. (1984). The Modernity of Tradition: Political Development in India. Rudolph, Susanne Hoeber. University of Chicago Press. pp. 116–117. ISBN 978-0-226-73137-7.
- "The British Empire, Imperialism, Colonialism, Colonies".
- Dumont, Louis (1980), Homo hierarchicus: the caste system and its implications, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 66–67, ISBN 978-0-226-16963-7
- Inden, R. (1986). Orientalist Constructions of India. Modern Asian Studies, 20(3), 401-446. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00007800
- "The Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order 1950". Lawmin.nic.in. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- Lydia Polgreen (21 December 2011). "Scaling Caste Walls With Capitalism's Ladders in India". The New York Times.
- "Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes population: Census 2001". Government of India. 2004.
- "Children pay high price for cheap labour". UNICEF.
- ZAMA COURSEN-NEFF (30 January 2003). "For 15 million in India, a childhood of slavery". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
- "UN report slams India for caste discrimination". CBC News. 2 March 2007.
- "Viewpoint: India must stop denying caste and gender violence". BBC News. 11 June 2014
- Sen, Ronojoy. (2012). "The persistence of caste in indian politics". Pacific Affairs. 85 (2): 363–369. doi:10.5509/2012852363.
- Gandhi, Rag S. (1980). "FROM CASTE TO CLASS IN INDIAN SOCIETY". Humboldt Journal of Social Relations. 7 (2): 1–14.
- Gandhi, Divya. (2 April 2016). "Running in the family". The Hindu.
- Kingsley Davis (13 June 2013). "Intermarriage in Caste Societies". AnthroSource. 43 (3): 376–395. doi:10.1525/aa.1941.43.3.02a00030.
- Berreman, Gerald D. (1962). "Village Exogamy in Northernmost India". 18 (1): 55–58. Cite journal requires
- Delhi A.R (13 June 2013). "Indian Reservations". The Economist. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- Fredrick Barth (December 1956). "Ecologic Relationships of Ethnic Groups in Swat, North Pakistan". American Anthropologist. 58 (6): 1079–1089. doi:10.1525/aa.1956.58.6.02a00080.
- Zeyauddin Ahmed (1977). The New Wind: Changing Identities in South Asia (Editor: Kenneth David). Aldine Publishing Company. pp. 337–354. ISBN 978-90-279-7959-9.
- McKim Marriott (1960). Caste ranking and community structure in five regions of India and Pakistan. OCLC 186146571.
- John Rogers (February 2004). "Caste as a social category and identity in colonial Lanka". Indian Economic and Social History Review. 41 (1): 51–77. doi:10.1177/001946460404100104.
- James Boon (1977). The Anthropological Romance of Bali 1597-1972: Dynamic Perspectives in Marriage and Caste, Politics and Religion. ISBN 978-0-521-21398-1.
- Scott, William Henry (1979). "Class Structure in the Unhispanized Philippines". Philippine Studies. 27 (2, Special Issue in Memory of Frank Lynch): 137–159. JSTOR 42632474.
- Arcilla, José S. (1998). An Introduction to Philippine History. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 14–16. ISBN 9789715502610.
- Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay: sixteenth-century Philippine culture and society. Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 9789715501354.
- "Chinese Society: Change, Conflict and Resistance", by Elizabeth J. Perry, Mark Selden, page 90
- "China's New Confucianism: Politics and Everyday Life in a Changing Society", p. 86, by Daniel A. Bell
- Li Liu (2007). "Filial Piety, Guanxi, Loyalty, and Money". In Marková, Ivana; Gillespie, Alex (eds.). Trust and Distrust: Sociocultural Perspectives. IAP. p. 63. ISBN 9781607526322.
- David L. Howell (2005). Geographies of identity in nineteenth-century Japan. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24085-8.
- George De Vos and Hiroshi Wagatsuma (1966). Japan's invisible race: caste in culture and personality. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-00306-4.
- Toby Slade (2009). Japanese Fashion: A Cultural History. Berg. ISBN 978-1-84788-252-3.
- "Class, Ethnicity and Nationality: Japan Finds Plenty of Space for Discrimination". Hrdc.net. 18 June 2001. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- William H. Newell (December 1961). "The Comparative Study of Caste in India and Japan". Asian Survey. 1 (10): 3–10. doi:10.1525/as.1961.1.10.01p15082. JSTOR 3023467.
- Rodriguez, Junius P. (1997). The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery. ABC-CLIO. p. 392. ISBN 9780874368857. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
10 percent of the total population on average, but it could rise up to one-third of the total.
- Kim, Youngmin; Pettid, Michael J. (1 November 2011). Women and Confucianism in Choson Korea: New Perspectives. SUNY Press. p. 141. ISBN 9781438437774. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- Campbell, Gwyn (23 November 2004). Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia. Routledge. p. 163. ISBN 9781135759179. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- Kim, Joong-Seop (1999). "In Search of Human Rights: The Paekchŏng Movement in Colonial Korea". In Gi-Wook Shin and Michael Robinson (ed.). Colonial Modernity in Korea. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-674-00594-5.
- Kim, Joong-Seop (2003). The Korean Paekjŏng under Japanese rule: the quest for equality and human rights. p. 147.
- Hwang, Kyung Moon (2004), University of Southern California. Citizenship, Social Equality and Government Reform: Changes in the Household Registration System in Korea, 1894–1910
- 06 Jun 2012 (6 June 2012). "North Korea caste system 'underpins human rights abuses'". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- Barbara Demick, Nothing to Envy: Love, Life and Death in North Korea, Fourth Estate, London, 2010, pp. 26–27.
- Demick, pp. 28, 197, 202.
- Nicolle, p. 11
- These four are the three common "Indo-Euoropean" social tripartition common among ancient Iranian, Indian and Romans with one extra Iranian element (from Yashna xix/17). cf. Frye, p. 54.
- Amir Taheri. The Persian Night: Iran under the Khomeinist Revolution. Encounter books. p. 1982.
- Kāẓim ʻAlamdārī. Why the Middle East Lagged Behind: The Case of Iran. University Press of America. p. 72.
- "Yemen's Al-Akhdam face brutal oppression". CNN iReport. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
- Elijah Obinna (2012). "Contesting identity: the Osu caste system among Igbo of Nigeria". African Identities. 10 (1): 111–121. doi:10.1080/14725843.2011.614412.
- James B. Watson (Winter 1963). "Caste as a Form of Acculturation". Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. 19 (4): 356–379. doi:10.1086/soutjanth.19.4.3629284.
- Tal Tamari (1991). "The Development of Caste Systems in West Africa". The Journal of African History. 32 (2): 221–250. doi:10.1017/S0021853700025718.
- Leo Igwe (21 August 2009). "Caste discrimination in Africa". International Humanist and Ethical Union.
- SF Nadel (1954). "Caste and government in primitive society". Journal of Anthropological Society. 8: 9–22.
- "Kingdoms of Ancient African History". www.africankingdoms.com. Archived from the original on 19 May 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
- Dolores Richter (January 1980). "Further considerations of caste in West Africa: The Senufo". Africa. 50 (1): 37–54. doi:10.2307/1158641. JSTOR 1158641.
- Ethel M. Albert (Spring 1960). "Socio-Political Organization and Receptivity to Change: Some Differences between Ruanda and Urundi". Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. 16 (1): 46–74. doi:10.1086/soutjanth.16.1.3629054.
- Jacques J. Maquet (1962). The Premise of Inequality in Ruanda: A Study of Political Relations in a Central African Kingdom. Oxford University Press, London. pp. 135–171. ISBN 978-0-19-823168-4.
- Helen Codere (1962). "Power in Ruanda". Anthropologica. 4 (1): 45–85. doi:10.2307/25604523. JSTOR 25604523.
- Lewis, I.M. (2008). Understanding Somalia and Somaliland: Culture, History, Society. Columbia University Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0231700849.
- D. M. Todd (October 1977). "La Caste en Afrique? (Caste in Africa?)". Africa. 47 (4): 398–412. doi:10.2307/1158345. JSTOR 1158345.
- Pankhurst, Alula. 1999. "'Caste' in Africa: the evidence from south-western Ethiopia reconsidered". Africa 69(4), pp. 485–509.
- p. 299. Sayuri Yoshida. "Why did the Manjo convert to Protestant? Social Discrimination and Coexistence in Kafa, Southwest Ethiopia?" Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, ed. by Svein Ege, Harald Aspen, Birhanu Teferra and Shiferaw Bekele, Trondheim 2009. pp. 299–309.
- Diedrich Westermann, Edwin William Smith, Cyril Daryll Forde (1981). Africa. Oxford University Press. p. 853.
- I. M. Lewis, A pastoral democracy: a study of pastoralism and politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa (LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: 1999), pp. 13–14
- Sean Thomas (28 July 2008). "The last untouchable in Europe". London: The Independent, United Kingdom.
- Anders Hansson (1996). Chinese Outcasts: Discrimination and Emancipation in Late Imperial China. Brill. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-90-04-10596-6.
- Government Equalities Office, Caste legislation introduction – programme and timetable, accessed 2 June 2016
- "Research report 91: Caste in Britain: Socio-legal Review | Equality and Human Rights Commission". www.equalityhumanrights.com. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- Warner, W. Lloyd (1936). "American Caste and Class". American Journal of Sociology. 42 (2): 234–237. doi:10.1086/217391.
- Berreman, Gerald (September 1960). "Caste in India and the United States". American Journal of Sociology. 66 (2): 120–127. doi:10.1086/222839. JSTOR 2773155.
- Subramanian Shankar Feed Subramanian Shankar, and University of Hawaii.“Does America Have a Caste System?” CityLab, The Atlantic Monthly Group, 26 Jan. 2018, www.citylab.com/equity/2018/01/does-america-have-a-caste-system/551591/.
- Béteille, André (2002), "Caste", in Barnard, Alan; Spencer, Jonathan (eds.), Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology, New York; London: Routledge, pp. 136–137, ISBN 978-0-415-28558-2
- Doniger, Wendy, ed. (1999), "Caste", Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, p. 186, ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0, retrieved 24 September 2012
- Gupta, Dipankar (2008), "Caste", in Schaefer, Richard T. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society, Thousand Oaks: Sage, pp. 246–250, ISBN 978-1-4129-2694-2, retrieved 5 August 2012
- Lagasse, Paul, ed. (2007), "Caste", The Columbia Encyclopedia, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-14446-9, retrieved 24 September 2012
- Madan, T. N.; Editors (2012), caste, Encyclopæida Britannica OnlineCS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Mitchell, Geoffrey Duncan (2006), "Castes (part of Social Stratification)", A New Dictionary of the Social Sciences, New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction Publishers, pp. 194–195, ISBN 978-0-202-30878-4, retrieved 10 August 2012
- Morris, Mike (2012), "caste", Concise Dictionary of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons, p. 33, ISBN 978-1-4443-3209-4, retrieved 10 August 2012
- Nagar, Richa (2011), "caste", in Derek Gregory (ed.), The Dictionary of Human Geography, Ron Johnston, Geraldine Pratt, Michael Watts, Sarah Whatmore, John Wiley & Sons, p. 72, ISBN 978-1-4443-5995-4, retrieved 10 August 2012
- Oxford English Dictionary ("caste, n.", Oxford English Dictionary, Second edition; online version June 2012, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1989, retrieved 5 August 2012) Quote: caste, n. 2a. spec. One of the several hereditary classes into which society in India has from time immemorial been divided; ... This is now the leading sense, which influences all others.
- Parry, Jonathan (2003), "Caste", in Kuper, Adam; Kuper, Jessica (eds.), Social Science Encyclopedia, London and New York: Routledge, p. 131, ISBN 978-0-415-28560-5
- Pavri, Firooza (2004), "Caste", in Tim Forsyth (ed.), Encyclopedia of International Development, Abingdon, Oxon; New York: Routledge, pp. 63–, ISBN 978-0-415-25342-0
- Ramu, G. N. (2008), "Caste", in William A. Darity (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, (Macmillan social science library), Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference US, ISBN 978-0-02-865967-1, retrieved 24 September 2012
- Roberts, Nathaniel P. (2008), "Anthropology of Caste", in William A. Darity (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Macmillan social science library, Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference US, ISBN 978-0-02-865967-1, retrieved 24 September 2012
- Salamone, Frank A. (1997), "Caste", in Rodriguez, Junius P. (ed.), The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, Volume 1, Santa Barbara, CA; Oxford, UK: ABC-CLIO, p. 133, ISBN 978-0-87436-885-7, retrieved 5 August 2012
- Scott, John; Marshall, Gordon (2005), "caste", A Dictionary of Sociology, Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, p. 66, ISBN 978-0-19-860987-2, retrieved 10 August 2012
- Sonnad, Subhash R. (2003), "Caste", in Christensen, Karen; Levinson, David (eds.), Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 115–121, ISBN 978-0-7619-2598-9, retrieved 5 August 2012
- Sooryamoorthi, Radhamany (2006), "Caste Systems", in Leonard, Thomas M. (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Developing World, New York: Routledge, pp. 252–, ISBN 978-0-415-97662-6, retrieved 5 August 2012
- Winthrop, Robert H. (1991), Dictionary of Concepts in Cultural Anthropology, ABC-CLIO, pp. 27–30, ISBN 978-0-313-24280-9, retrieved 10 August 2012
- Spectres of Agrarian Territory by David Ludden 11 December 2001
- "Early Evidence for Caste in South India", pp. 467–492 in Dimensions of Social Life: Essays in honor of David G. Mandelbaum, Edited by Paul Hockings and Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, Amsterdam, 1987.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Castes.|
|Look up caste in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Auguste Comte on why and how castes developed across the world - in The Positive Philosophy, Volume 3 (see page 55 onwards)
- Robert Merton on Caste and The Sociology of Science
- Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age - Susan Bayly
- Class In Yemen by Marguerite Abadjian (Archive of the Baltimore Sun)
- International Dalit Solidarity Network: An international advocacy group for Dalits